Performance implies evaluation after it occurs and therefore it suggests the presence of some sort of measuring system. Motivation, on the other hand, is only one of several psychological (internal) states that influence performance.
Motivation can be broken into five levels of need.
- Self-actualisation - The need to reach one’s fullest potential
- Esteem - The need to feel good about one- self and one’s abilities; and to be respected by others and to receive their approval
- Belongingness - The need to experience social inter- action, friendship and love
- Safety - Need for security, stability and a safe work environment
- Physiological - Food, water, shelter and clothing to ensure survival
Unsatisfied employee needs at all levels lead to undesirable outcomes at work because they create experienced inequity for employees. In turn, this produces job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, quitting, sabotage, and ineffective work relationships.
People have a need to grow and develop their full potential, and consequently, they believe that promotions lead to greater need satisfaction. Therefore, career management, mentoring programmes and training and development all support self-actualisation.
Higher-order needs are never fully satisfied.